Sunday, January 8, 2012

"Militia Cookbook" Emergency Food Preparation

"Militia Cookbook" Emergency Food Preparation
Page 1 of 37
Emergency Food Preparation
During wartime or a natural disaster, food shortages and lack of natural gas or electricity for
cooking requires a great deal of improvisation and reliance upon back-to-basics cooking
techniques used by our forefathers in order to survive. In an emergency it helps to know what to
do with all the wheat, rice, cornmeal, sugar, molasses, vegetable oil and dried beans, milk, fruits
and vegetables which you've wisely cached along with firewood or cooking fuel.
Colonial, pioneer and nineteenth century military cooking methods and recipes are useful when
preparing meals from simple cached staples. Many of the recipes included in this information
paper don't need perishables like meat, eggs or yeast, which you might not have.
Recipes for the modern kitchen with a temperature-controlled oven will naturally have to be
adjusted by trial and error if you are baking in a clay oven in the field or cooking over a campfire.
Improvisation is called for to substitute what is available. For example if a recipe calls for bacon
drippings, you can use any cooking fat like lard, margarine, butter, vegetable oil or shortening.
Butter Flavor Crisco can be used in most recipes, doesn't require refrigeration and is available in
easy to measure sticks.
The interaction between a sweetener, baking soda and buttermilk or sour milk (which you can
make by adding a little vinegar to reconstituted dry milk; 1 tablespoon per cup of milk and let
stand 5 minutes) can substitute for yeast if none is available.
White hardwood ashes can replace baking powder as a leavening agent.
Honey, molasses or syrups and be substituted for sugar in most recipes by using less water. 1 cup
honey = 1-1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid.
Use whatever dried fruit is available regardless of what the recipe calls for.
Experimentation is the order of the day.
If you remember to add spices in stages (they can't be removed if you use too much) and if all of
the ingredients you use are food, then the chances are the end result will be edible (especially if
you are hungry enough).
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Sources of Recipes
Living history reenactors of the American Revolution and the War of Northern Aggression take
great delight in recreating authentic army meals around their campfires and hardcore reenactors
actually eat the mess. Patricia B. Mitchell has published a series of cookbooks (available from
Sims-Mitchell House Bed & Breakfast, 242 Whittle Street SW, P.O. Box 429, Chatham, VA
24531) to make this task easier and many excerpts from her books "Revolutionary Recipes,"
"Union Army Camp Cooking," "Confederate Camp Cooking," "Confederate Home Cooking" and
"Cooking for the Cause" are included in this paper. Some recipes have been included from
"Colonial Treasure Cookbook" (Hutcraft, High Point, NC 27262) and from "Colonial Fireplace
Cooking & Early American Recipes" (Shoestring Press, 430 N. Harrison, East Lansing, MI
Regional cookbooks, especially from the South, are a source of recipes for nutritional meals from
simple foods. Recipes have been included from various southern cookbooks including "Cookin'
Yankees Ain't Et" (The Merry Mountaineers, Highlands, NC 28741), "Southern Recipes" and
"Piggin' Out in Dixie" (Southern Cookbooks, P.O. Box 100905, Nashville, TN 37224).
Recipes and field cooking techniques have also been excerpted from "The Green Beret Gourmet"
(The Guttenberg Press Publications, P.O. Box 973, Rockledge, FL 32955).
Some quick bread recipes which don't require yeast come from "Sunset Breads" (Sunset
Publishing Corp., Menlo Park, CA 94025), a cookbook with recipes from all over the world. If
you have active dry yeast or sourdough starter, this book is an excellent reference for other bread
recipes not included in this paper.
Vegetarian cookbooks should also be a good source of survival recipes, but being a confirmed
carnivore, the writer of this paper has no personal knowledge of any such books. Backpacking
books are also an excellent source of field cooking techniques and recipes.
There is a chapter on field nutrition and camp cooking as well as an extensive appendix of recipes
in "The National Outdoor Leadership School's Wilderness Guide" (Simon & Schuster, Inc., Simon
& Schuster Building, Rockefeller Center, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020).
"Roughing It Easy" by Dian Thomas (The Dian Thomas Company, P.O. Box 171107, Holladay,
UT 84117; 1-800-846-6355) is a comprehensive collection of outdoor cooking recipes and
techniques, including many variations on improvised tin can stoves and ovens, pit and open fire
cooking, dutch oven cooking, building a solar reflector cooker or solar oven and a section on
drying fruits, vegetables and jerky.
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The Improvised Kitchen
You should have a camping stove for emergency cooking purposes. Two-burner stoves are useful
in a fixed location or if you are vehicle mobile. Propane stoves are easy to use but fuel is
expensive, the high pressure steel canisters are heavy and not likely to be widely available during
a long-term emergency. A multifuel stove capable of using either white gas (lantern fuel or
Coleman fuel) or ordinary gasoline is easier to resupply in an emergency. However, gasoline
burns hotter than propane and is not as useful for low heat simmering of foods, so it might be wise
to have both types of stove.
If you are in a fixed location like a survival retreat or base camp, nothing beats a cast iron skillet,
covered kettle and especially a dutch oven for open fire or hot coal cooking. An excellent
configuration for a cooking fire is the keyhole type. Build a fire ring of rocks with a rectangular
extension, build a fire in the circular part and coals can be raked or shoveled into the rectangular
cooking area as needed. A grill or griddle can be supported over the rectangular cooking area
(bricks can be used instead of rocks here for more stability) or the area can be used with a dutch
oven. A metal tripod (or one fashioned from green branches) to hang a kettle can be used for
boiling water or directly cooking over the flames in the circular part of the fire ring.
The book "Roughing It Easy" shows how useful heavy duty aluminum foil is for outdoor cooking;
stock up. Also, if you store food in large #10 cans (1 gallon) or in five gallon square cans, get this
book and a pair of tin snips to convert the empty cans into many useful stove and oven variations.
A cookie cooling rack can be used over a small pit of coals or an improvised #10 can barbecue.
A grill and dutch oven can be arranged to allow simultaneous use as a baking oven and for frying.
Dig a shallow hole 9 to 12 inches in diameter and 3 to 4 inches deep; place coals or charcoal
briquets in the hole and place the grill across the hole; put the pan containing the item to be baked
on the grill and cover with an inverted dutch oven; place coals on the base of the dutch oven which
is now the top; place the inverted dutch oven lid on the base tripod legs and it becomes a griddle
for frying foods.
Another useful accessory for either base camp cooking or for use in the field is a folding pack
grill. Such a grill can be used for directly broiling meats, as a stand over the coals for a skillet,
griddle or a stock pot (used for soups and stews, as a steamer or as an oven for baking or roasting),
as a reflector oven (using disposable aluminum cooking pans for reflectors), as a stand for an
inverted dutch oven lid allowing it to be used for frying, as a dirt free stand for placing a dutch
oven lid when adding ingredients to or checking the progress of food in the oven and as a stand
away from the fire for serving or for safely adding ingredients without burning yourself or spilling
the food. The Coghlan's brand pack grill is cheap enough (about $3 to $4 in discount stores) that
several can be purchased for use in a base camp. A single pack grill and a lightweight nesting
cooking set or GI mess kit can be carried in your rucksack to simplify field cooking.
You can also add a folding pocket stove or GI canteen cup stand and solid fuel tablets to your
rucksack for reheating prepared foods or preparing hot beverages like instant soup, coffee, tea or
To ease the cleanup chore when reheating cooked food, immerse the food container (can, MRE
pouch, vacuum seal bag or freezer bag) in boiling water in your cooking pot; pierce the food
container above the water line so it doesn't explode. In the field this method of heating food
reduces cooking odors and lessens the chance of giving away your unit's position to enemy scouts.
A single-burner butane or multifuel backpacking stove can be shared between two or three people.
Most butane cartridges nowadays are filled with iso-butane which can be used down to about 20
degrees but, like with two-burner camp stoves, a multifuel stove is easier to resupply. Get an extra
GI canteen cover and you can carry your stove attached to the side of your GI rucksack.
"Militia Cookbook" Emergency Food Preparation
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If you are on the move without a vehicle or pack animals to carry heavy cooking vessels like cast
iron skillets and dutch ovens (or in case you get separated from your well stocked rucksack), here
are some of the many other ways of cooking food using natural materials described in "The Green
Beret Gourmet":
Clay Ovens:
Construct an arched structure of green sticks (similar in shape to a beehive), insert a thick stick
vertically through the top to form a flue opening and daub with wet clay until it is completely
covered except for a front opening. Pile on successive layers of clay until a thick wall is made.
Allow the layers to dry between applications by either placing hot coals inside or, if time is not a
problem, by the sun. If each layer is not thoroughly dry, the oven will crack when you try to use
it. A clay oven can also be made by hammering a thick sharpened stick down through a bank or
slope about three feet back from the edge. Scoop out the size of the oven you want about a foot or
so down the bank. Leave a thick ceiling. Leave a narrow front opening and dig back and hollow
the bank as far as the stick which you hammered down. Pull the stick out to form the chimney
opening. Wet your hands and smooth the interior surfaces, then harden the walls by building a
small fire inside. After your oven is prepared, to use it build a fire inside. When the fire has
burned down, scrape out the coals and ashes. Lay food inside on stones, leaves or hardwood slabs.
Close off the front opening and flue. Leave food inside to cook. Cooking time depends upon the
type of food being cooked.
Cooking in Natural Containers:
A stone with a hollow in it makes an excellent container. If it is small enough you can build a fire
around the stone. Bark can be used to fashion pots to boil water, cook soups, stews or any foods
with liquids over a fire. Peel a square of bark and fold the corners inward and hold them in place
with wooden pegs. Keep the flames from touching your bark pot above the liquid level and your
meal will cook in this simple container. Large leaves make an instant "aluminum foil" when
baking or steaming food, but be sure to use edible nonpoisonous leaves.
Baking in Clay.
This method is excellent for small game or fish. Remove the entrails from the animal being
prepared. This is easiest to do if the animal is already dead. Do not skin, pluck or scale. Cover
with a layer of clay about an inch thick. Place it in hot ashes and build a fire above it. Cooking
time varies with animal size and taste preference. A one pound animal will be cooked in
approximately 30 to 40 minutes. The meat will be stripped clean of fur, feathers or scales when
you break off the clay.
Baking on a Stick.
Heat a peeled green stick by the fire while you prepare a bread dough. Mix a GI canteen cup of
flour with a mound of baking powder the size of a quarter and a dash of salt. Add water gradually
to make a soft dough. Work quickly so the bread will rise as it bakes. Wrap dough around heated
stick and place upright next to the fire to let it bake.
Cooking in Ashes.
Foodstuff is placed in warm ashes and then covered with embers. Self-contained foods such as
vegetables do not need to be wrapped in anything; simply place them in the ashes and dust them
off after cooking. Cooking time depends upon the type of food and personal preferences. You
can test vegetables by feeling for softness and putting them back if they still feel firm.
Cooking on Wood Slabs.
Select a green hardwood slab (evergreens season the food with a pine or turpentine taste) large
enough to lash or peg the animal. Fish and very small game can be successfully cooked this way.
Clean the animal and flatten down on the slab. Either pin the animal down with wooden pegs or
lash to the slab with whatever is available. Lean the slab up in front of glowing coals. Turn a few
times so the food will cook evenly.
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This recipe comes from Richmond, Virginia in the Confederate States of America when Yankee
invaders were marauding and food was in short supply:
Roasted Rat
The rat must be skinned, cleaned, his head cut off and his body laid upon a square board, the legs
stretched to their full extent and secured upon it with small tacks, then baste with bacon fat and
roast before a good fire quickly like canvasback ducks.
Broiling on a Stick.
This is a good method for cooking a small amount of food. Fish, birds and small animals (large
animals must be cut into smaller chunks) can be cleaned and then skewered on a peeled green
wood stick. If the food tends to slide, a bark twine can be used to tie it down by splitting the wood
down to the game on both ends and twisting bark through the splits. Sear the meat in the flame to
seal in the juices. The skewer can be laid over forked green sticks at both ends of an ember bed.
As long as the fire does not flame up, the meat needs only occasional turning so it cooks evenly.
Steaming in a Hole.
This method can be used to cook small or enormous amounts of food with great results. Build a
fire and place some stones in it to heat. Don't select rocks from a stream bed, limestone or
sandstone since they can contain trapped moisture and may explode when heated. While the
stones are heating, dig a hole. Put the stones in the pit and place a thick layer of wet vegetation
like grass or seaweed over them. Lay the food on top of the wet vegetation and place a stick near
the edge of the pit. Fill with dirt. Pull the stick out and pour water down this opening onto the
rocks to steam the food. Tamp down the top and leave the food to steam for at least two or three
hours. If you are cooking something larger than fish or small game, the cooking time will need to
be extended.
Meat can be grilled over the coals if it is fat. Lean game will end up very dry. Build a bed of
hardwood embers and place a grill matting of green sticks on it. Place the meat on the grill and
turn immediately after the sides are seared to seal in the juices. Try not to pierce the meat with
whatever you are turning it with so you don't lose any juices. Keep a small container of water
nearby to douse any flames that surface from the fat drippings.
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Fire Cake and Hoe Cakes
One of the easiest ways of making flour edible, even if not very appetizing, is to make a simple
dough and fry or bake it over a fire. During the Revolutionary War it was common for soldiers to
make a thick paste of flour and water (salt was added when available) and then bake it on hot
rocks around a campfire. The result was an unpalatable, chewy, soggy glob which only the
starving soldiers at Valley Forge probably appreciated. Hoe cakes were made from a corn meal
dough carried to the fields by slaves and other farm workers. At lunch they cleaned their hoes, put
the dough on them and cooked it over a fire.
Entrenching Tool Cake
4 GI canteen cups white cornmeal
boiling water
1 GI mess kit spoon (1 tablespoon) bacon drippings
GI mess kit spoon salt
Scald cornmeal with enough boiling water to make a stiff batter, then add bacon drippings and
salt. Shape into pones, leaving the imprint of four fingers across top. Place batter on the cleaned,
greased blade of an entrenching tool and set up next to fire to bake.
Corn Pone
2 cups cornmeal
3/4 tsp. salt (or less)
boiling water
2 tbsp. butter or margarine, melted; or vegetable oil
Combine all ingredients to make a semi-stiff mush. Spread 1/4-inch thick in a well-greased heavy
pan and bake at 375 degrees 20 to 25 minutes. Corn pones used to be baked on a greased shovel
over glowing coals.
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During the War for Southern Independence, hardtack was a staple food (when fresh bread was
unavailable) for both the brutal soldiers of the oppressive Federal government and the brave
Confederate patriots defending their homeland. Hardtack was a virtually indestructible 1/2-inch
thick cracker about three inches by three inches, pierced with sixteen holes and made from flour
and water. Tack was a contemptuous term for food and the soldiers "affectionately" referred to
hardtack as worm castles, sheet iron crackers and tooth dullers. Some of the hardtack issued to
soldiers in the 1860's was supposedly left over from the 1846-48 Mexican War. The daily ration
was nine or ten crackers, but there was usually enough for those who wanted more since some
men would not draw a full ration. They were eaten plain, soaked in coffee or crumbled and added
to the stew pot. A dish known as Skillygalee was made by soaking hardtack in cold water and
then browning it in pork fat and seasoning to taste. A favorite seasoning of the times was cayenne
pepper. Confederate Cush provided a dinner entree that consisted of bits of cooked beef, seasoned
with garlic, fried in bacon grease and then stewed with crumbled hardtack or cornmeal mush. The
crackers included in military C-rations and the current MREs are similar to hardtack, being much
more dense, containing more flour and less air than commercial saltine crackers. When fresh,
hardtack was not unappetizing, but when boxes of hardtack sat on railroad platforms or
warehouses for months before being issued it hardened and often became insect infested. Because
hardtack was packed in boxes marked "B.C." (probably for "Brigade Commissary"), soldiers said
they were so hard because they were baked "Before Christ".
The following account from a Yankee invader indicates how much hardtack was appreciated:
"While before Petersburg, doing siege work in the summer of 1864, our men had wormy hardtack,
or ship's biscuit, served out to them for a time. It was a severe trial, and it tested the temper of the
men. Breaking open the biscuit and finding live worms in them, they would throw the pieces in
the trenches where they were doing duty day by day, although the orders were to keep the trenches
clean for sanitary reasons. A brigade officer of the day, seeing some of the scraps along our front,
called out sharply to our men 'Throw that hardtack out of the trenches.' Then, as the men men
promptly gathered it up as directed, he added, 'Don't you know that you've no business to throw
hardtack in the trenches? Haven't you been told that often enough?' Out from the injured soldier
heart there came the reasonable explanation 'We've thrown it out two or three times, sir, but it
crawls back.'"
Hardtack (original 1860's recipe) Use one part water to six parts flour. Roll dough flat and score
into cracker shapes. Bake 20-25 minutes and cool off until completely dry before storing in
canisters. The crackers should be hard as bricks and indestructibly unappetizing. If not consumed
by hungry soldiers, the crackers might last at least until the Lord returns!
The following recipes don't duplicate the indestructible nature of 19th century hardtack, but they
are more appetizing since they are made from more than just flour and water:
1-1/4 cups cornmeal
1 cup water (about)
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tbsp. vegetable oil
Combine the above ingredients, using enough water to moisten. Bake in a greased 7x11-inch pan
at 375 degrees for around 15 minutes, or until the edges begin to brown slightly. While still warm,
cut into squares. A modern day cross between hardtack and cornbread, these thick crackers are
actually pleasantly tasty served warm or reheated.
"Militia Cookbook" Emergency Food Preparation
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Swedish Hardtack
1 cup water
3 tbsp. vegetable oil
3 tbsp. honey
3 cups rye flour (or 1-1/2 cups rye & 1-1/2 cups whole wheat flour)
1-1/2 tbsp. brewer's yeast (optional)
1/4 tsp. salt
Mix liquids together. In a separate bowl, mix dry ingredients. Combine the mixtures, stirring to
moisten throughout. Form a ball. On a floured surface, flatten the dough, and roll out thinly. Cut
into squares and prick each cracker with the tines of a fork a couple of times. Transfer to lightly
greased baking sheets. Bake at 425 degrees around 8 minutes, checking to be sure not to overbrown.
Best served warm.
Southern Soda Crackers
2 cups flour (preferably whole wheat)
1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. baking soda
2 tbsp. oil
2/3 cup sour milk (or buttermilk)
Mix dry ingredients. Add oil and sour milk. With a fork, stir to thoroughly moisten. Form a ball.
Flatten and roll out on a floured surface. Cut into squares and transfer to lightly greased baked
sheets. Prick crackers with a fork. Bake at 350 degrees for about 8-10 minutes, watching
vigilantly so as not to burn. Best served warm.
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Red meats are complete proteins containing all of the essential amino acids needed by the body to
build and maintain muscle and other tissues. Most vegetables don't contain all of the necessary
amino acids (although soybeans contain most) and are referred to as incomplete proteins. The
Confederate army marched and fought on a staple diet of cornbread and beans, combining
incomplete proteins to provide good nutrition.
Southern Cornbread
2 cups cornmeal
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. baking soda
2 tsp. baking powder
1-1/4 cups buttermilk (or sour milk)
1 egg, well beaten
1/4 cup melted grease (your choice)
Preheat oven at 425 degrees. Mix cornmeal, salt, soda, baking powder and sugar. Add buttermilk
and egg. Blend well. Heat grease (until it almost smokes) in an 8 or 9 inch iron skillet, then pour
most of the grease into the batter and stir, mixing well. Pour batter into the very hot skillet. Bake
for 20 to 25 minutes, or until nicely browned.
Molasses Cornbread or Muffins
1-1/2 cups bran
1 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup cornmeal
1 tbsp. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
1/4 cup sugar
1/3 cup vegetable oil
2 eggs, beaten
1 cup milk
1/3 cup molasses
Combine dry ingredients. Add liquid and blend well. Pour into a greased 9x9x2-inch baking dish
and bake at 375 degrees for 30 minutes; or pour into 18 greased muffin tins and bake at 375
degrees for 20 minutes.
Grandma Sarah's Cornbread
1-1/2 cups sour milk or buttermilk
2 eggs
1 tbsp. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. baking soda
1-1/2 cups cornmeal
1/2 cup flour
1/4 cup melted butter
Combine first five ingredients. Stir in cornmeal and flour. Add melted butter. Pour batter into
greased 8-inch square pan. Bake at 425 degrees for 30 minutes.
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A Lady's Touch Cornbread
1 cup cornmeal
1 cup whole wheat, unbleached or all-purpose flour
2 tbsp. sugar (optional)
1 tbsp. baking powder
1/4 to 1/2 tsp. salt
1 egg, beaten (optional)
3 tbsp. vegetable oil
1-1/4 cup milk
Combine the dry ingredients. Stir in the liquids and spoon into a greased 8-inch square pyrex dish.
Bake at 400 degrees for 20 minutes. The recipe can be easily doubled and baked in a 9x13-inch
pyrex dish.
Country Sunshine Cornmeal Loaves
4 cups yellow cornmeal
2 cups all-purpose flour
2 tsp. baking powder
2 tsp. baking soda
3/4 tsp. salt
1/2 cup sugar
6 tbsp. butter or margarine, melted
4 cups buttermilk or sour milk
Mix dry ingredients. Stir in butter and buttermilk. Blend well. Pour batter into two greased 9x5-
inch loaf pans. Let stand 15 minutes. Bake at 350 degrees for one hour. (Note: no eggs required
for this recipe)
Johnny Cake or Journey Cake
1 cup cornmeal
1 tbsp. salt
1 cup water
1/2 cup milk
Stir cornmeal and salt into boiling water. Cook until thick. Remove from heat and add milk. Mix
well. Drop from large spoon on greased hot griddle or skillet. Turn to brown both sides.
Johnny Cakes
1 cup cornmeal
1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. sugar
1-1/2 cups boiling water
1/2 cup milk
In a bowl combine the cornmeal, salt and sugar. Stir in water, beating out lumps. Slowly add
milk. Drop by tablespoons full into greased skillet. Cook slowly for 5 minutes. Turn over and
cook 5 minutes more. Makes 10 cakes.
Dixie Corn Dodgers
2 cups cornmeal
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. baking powder
2 tbsp, vegetable oil, melted butter, or bacon drippings
2/3 cup milk (approximately)
Combine the dry ingredients. Stir in liquids. Form eight "bullet-shaped" dodgers. Drop in a
greased and heated heavy skillet. Brown on one side, turn to brown bottom.
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Campfire Cornbread
1 cup cornmeal
1 cup flour
2 tsp. baking powder
3/4 tsp. salt
1 cup milk
1/4 cup vegetable oil
Mix dry ingredients. Stir in liquids. Spoon into a well-greased, heated 10 or 12 inch skillet.
Cover tightly. Cover over a low flame for 20 to 30 minutes, or until firm in the center. When pan
baking over hot coals place the pan on a low grill, on a three rock stand in the coals or directly on
coals. Place coals on top of the lid (like a dutch oven) to distribute heat more evenly. Baked
foods are more likely to burn on the bottom than the top. To prevent burning, check the
temperature of your coals before placing a pan on them. Hold your hand about six inches above
the coals; it should be hot, but you should be able to keep your hand in place for eight seconds.
No-Flour Camp Cornbread
1-1/2 cups cornmeal
1 tsp. salt
1 tsp. baking soda
1 tbsp. sugar, molasses, sorghum, or honey
2 cups buttermilk or sour milk (To sour milk, put 2 tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar in a pint
measuring cup. Add milk to make 2 cups. Stir and let sit a few minutes until clabbered.)
2 eggs, beaten
1 tbsp butter or margarine, melted (or other fat)
Mix dry ingredients. Stir in liquids. Spoon into a well-greased hot 10 or 12 inch iron skillet.
Cover and cook over a low flame for about 30 minutes or until firm in the center (or bake in the
oven at 425 degrees for approximately 30 minutes).
Hush Puppies
2 cups yellow cornmeal
1 tbsp. flour
1 tbsp. sugar
1 tsp. baking powder
3/4 tsp. baking soda
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
1-1/4 cups buttermilk
1 egg, well beaten
lard or cooking oil for deep frying, heated to 375 degrees
Mix dry ingredients together and make a well in the center. In a separate bowl mix buttermilk and
beaten egg. Pour in the well all at one time and mix until well blended. Using a heaping
tablespoon for each, form into small cakes. Deep fry only as many as will float uncrowded one
layer deep. Turn several times as they rise to the surface during cooking (do not pierce). Fry 3 to
4 minutes or until well browned. Drain a few seconds before transferring to paper towels. Serve
hot. (Note: At fish frys the dogs would start howling from the aroma of the cooking fish and hush
puppies were thrown to shut them up.)
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